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Proto-Indo-European language

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The Indo-European languages are a family of related languages that today are widely spoken in the Americas, Europe, and also Western and Southern Asia. Just as languages such as Spanish, French, Portuguese and Italian are all descended from Latin, Indo-European languages are believed to derive from a hypothetical language known as Proto-Indo-European, which is no longer spoken.

It is highly probable that the earliest speakers of this language originally lived around Ukraine and neighbouring regions in the Caucasus and Southern Russia, then spread to most of the rest of Europe and later down into India. The earliest possible end of Proto-Indo-European linguistic unity is believed to be around 3400 BCE.

Since the speakers of the Proto-Indo-European language did not develop a writing system, we have no physical evidence of it. The science of linguistics has been trying to reconstruct the Proto-Indo-European language using several methods and, although an accurate reconstruction of it seems impossible, we have today a general picture of what Proto-Indo-European speakers had in common, both linguistically and culturally. In addition to the use of comparative methods, there are studies based on the comparison of myths, laws, and social institutions.

English version by Cristian Violatti published on 05 May 2014 - World History Encyclopedia

The English Cowpath: The Proto-Indo-European Homeland Puzzle

Proto-Indo-European
PIE
Reconstruction ofIndo-European languages
  
Lower-order reconstructions
  • Proto-Albanian
  • Proto-Anatolian
  • Proto-Armenian
  • Proto-Balto-Slavic
  • Proto-Celtic
  • Proto-Germanic
  • Proto-Greek
  • Proto-Indo-Iranian
  • Proto-Italic
  • Proto-Tocharian

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